Department of Technical Education

Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) 

  1. What is the full form of TVET?
  2. What is the full form of BVQF?
  3. What is the full form of CBT?
  4. How many qualification levels are there under BVQF?
  5. What is National Competency Standards (NCS)?
  6. What are the uses of National Competency Standards?
  7. How National Competency Standards are developed?
  8. What levels of qualifications are developed at present? 
  9. What is the validity of NCS?
  10. Where can I get a copy of NCS?
  11. Who awards national certificates?
  12. How soon can a NC-2 graduate return to avail NC-3 training?
  13. How soon can a NC-3 graduate return to avail diploma level and higher?
  14. What is CBC?
  15. What is CBLM?
  16. How is CBT different from traditional method of training? Why has the Government adopted CBT?
  17. What are the possible pathways to move between work and education and training?
  18. What is recognition of prior learning (RPL)?
  19. What are the procedures required for RPL in acquiring national certificate?
  20. What is institutional assessment? 
  21. What is national assessment? 
  22. What are the entry requirements for availing vocational education and training?
  23. How long is the OJT/industrial attachment?
  24. Are graduates employable after a modular certification?

The full form of TVET is Technical & Vocational Education and Training.

The full form of BVQF is Bhutan Vocational Qualifications Framework.

The full form of CBT is Competency Based Training.

There are five qualifications level under the BVQF. They are NC-1, NC-2, NC-3, ND-4 

NC- National Certificate

ND- National Diploma

NCS is a written specification of the Knowledge, Skills & Attitude and the application of that Knowledge  Skills & Attitude required to perform a particular occupation to industry specific standards.

The NCSs are used as basis for National Assessment and National Certification. It is also used as basis for developing curriculum for training delivery. 

The NCSs are developed by trained developers. It is developed in close consultation with field/industry experts. The Technical Advisory Committee comprising of Managerial/Supervisor level members validates the draft NCS. The validated NCS is finally endorsed by the Department of Occupational Standards (DOS).

At Present only three levels of qualifications from NC1 to NC3 are developed. However, higher level qualifications from National Diploma Level 4 and 5 will be developed after full implementation of NC1 to NC3 levels.

The NCSs are valid for three years. However the NCSs can be revised before three years if there is major change in that occupation with the change in technology.

You can get a copy of NCS from the Department of Occupational Standards.  Once the TVET MIS is upgraded the soft copies of NCS will be available from this web.

The national certificates are awarded by the Department of Occupational Standards (DOS) of the Ministry of Labour and Human Resources (MoLHR).

After NC-2, the graduates will need to enter the job market and practice their acquired skills as well as prepare for NC-3 level entry. The graduates will be eligible for NC-3 training as soon as they are able to show evidence of basic work experience of 6 months in the same trade that they have been trained in.

A NC-3 graduate can avail of diploma level 5A & 5B based on the criteria set by the respective institute/University. However, it is to be noted that Diploma 5A requires minimum academic qualifications that may require an individual to take up bridging courses.  

CBC stands for Competency Based Curriculum. CBC is a type of curriculum that is developed based on the national competency standards.

CBLM stands for competency based learning materials. CBLM are learning materials used for training delivery such as textbooks, posters, manuals, guides, handouts, etc. that are developed based on the competency based curriculum.

Traditional Training   Competency Based Training
  •  Fixed Duration
  • Formal training, happens in the institute
  • Static System – supply driven
  • Fixed entry and exit points
  • Non-recognition of prior learning
  • Teacher-centered
  • Less industry participation
  • Nominal duration, and flexible thereafter
  • Mix of formal and informal training
  • Flexible entry and exit points Recognition of prior learning
  • Learner-centered
  • More industry participation



Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) is a policy to allow individuals that have gained skills and knowledge to acquire national certification or to undergo further skills training. 

Register with an assessment center (institutes or DOS)

Check the assessment schedule with DOS and decide the date of assessment

Prepare for the national assessment based on the NCS   

Sit for scheduled national assessment

If unsuccessful, re-register for the re-assessment as per DOS guidelines.

(Note: RPL Guideline being drafted and will be made available in the MoLHR Website once finalized)

Institutional assessment is the continuous assessment carried out by the institutes as and when the trainees acquire the competency. The respective institute carries out this assessment.

National assessment is the terminal assessment conducted at the end of each course/training level. This assessment results in national certification and is carried out by DOS.

The entry requirements for availing vocational education and training is minimum of class X pass for all formal training institutions. However, for other non formal training programmes, basic numeracy and literacy skills are adequate.

The duration of the OJT/industrial attachment will vary as per the need of the trade and depending on the possibility of attaching them to a relevant industry for hands on experience and is determined by the Curriculum.

Yes, if the modules meets the need of a particular employer